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N01SE : a multi-site multi-media exhibition at Kettle's Yard,  Cambridge and at the Wellcome Trust's Two10 Gallery,  London, UK,  organized around three key themes in digitality: -Universal Language, Pattern Recognition, Data Synaesthetics.   EXHIBITION PARTICIPANTS
n01se
Does DNA have a pulse?
DNA and Music, a catalogue essay from N01SE, edited by Alfred Birnbaum, conceived of and designed by Adam Lowe. Published by Kettle's Yard, Cambridge UK, 2000)

MERRILL GARNETT in conversation with Ben  Neill and Bill Jones about his research and its relation to their installation: Pulse 4,6,7,8:

In 1997
Ben Neill and Bill Jones began their collaboration on light/sound installations that resonate like pulsed biological systems. During that same period Jones began working with Dr. Merrill Garnett on a book about Garnett's cancer research in biochemical energetics. Garnett's electro-analytic measurements reveal the presence of a second genetic code by which DNA segments and cell membranes exchange ultra-low frequency sinusoidal currents. His theory is that these pulsed currents are the basis of all physiologic pulses and determine the polarization, charge, and folding of enzymes, nucleic acids, and membrane phospholipids. The restoration of these charge transfer pathways forms the basis of new methods of medical management (hot-wiring) of diseases of failure of cell differentiation such as cancer or psoriasis. Investigators at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, the University of Utah, and Columbia University have collaborated on his first hot-wire: palladium DNA reductase.This is the first non-toxic chemotherapy, a liquid crystal polymer complex of palladium and lipoic acid. In 1998 Jones' separate collaborations with Garnett and Neill found common ground in terms of the numerical ratios used in the sound/light compositions and in Garnett's research.

In working to develop a safe chemotherapy, I assumed that gene behaviors existed beyond those for replicating code and synthesizing RNA and proteins; that living gene material must programmatically energize the organism. I looked for substances that contributed electrons to DNA or took them away.

The discovery was that
palladium lipoic acid polymers contribute a charge to DNA, and proved to be non-toxic cancer chemotherapy agents. We went on from there to the idea that the charge must make a circuit - a current going into the cell and a current returning. My concern being that electrons released from the DNA would be oxidants and would imperil the integrity of DNA at the "G" base, as many mutagens and carcinogens do.

We couldn't just remove electrons from DNA. Adding them tends to be healing and repairing; removing them is fraught with side-effects. I conjectured that the part of the DNA to release current might be coiled around a protein to stabilize its structure, which woulld also place its charge density in
a resonant state, so that after discharging it would quickly be replenished.

In the chromosome, structures called
nucleosomes which are DNA coiled around histone proteins exist by the billions. They are found all through the chromosomes. This is exciting because the nucleosome is characteristically a stabilizing presence. As a coil, it has electronic inductance, and since we have a series of coils, we have a series inductance circuit. DNA current passes initially through the helix in a state  where it can discharge its field energy. Hence we have a pulse within the DNA interacting with other biomolecules like the membrane. The pulse can go in and come out, and the DNA is not imperiled. This proves an interesting model for the biological pulse.

We now have found two additional drugs that remove electrical charge from DNA, apparently from the nucleosome.
II've shown that isolated molecules not only discharge into one another as a part of this circuit, but that they have a variety of frequencies. They cross distances greater than 30 angstroms. We call this
long range electron transfer. Energy catalysts in liquid crystal form can transfer charges further than 30 angstroms, their dendrameric or branching structures explain their electronic continuum in the cell. It's hard to believe until you see the fern pattern of the palladium liquid crystal polymer.

When we were doing preliminary electrochemical tests on the palladium complex and calf thymus DNA, we found charges being transferred at certain frequencies. The ratio of the first frequencies was 6 : 7 : 8. I had just completed my book
First Pulse with Bill Jones and was excited to see Ben Neill's installation Pulse 48, which musically explored the harmonics of the numbers 4, 6. 7. and 8. These numeric relations have efficiency in an equational relationship. The installation not only coincided numerically, the computer-generated sound and light created an aesthetic.

I would expect there to be formula relationships in music. Forms that are efficient. If there are harmonics in the organism, its physiology will recognize certain signals. This would create the possibility of aesthetic relation. I look at music as one of those biological functions by which we recognize something within us and outside of us to be the same. I'm hoping everyone will be able to appreciate the music in the installation performance and in my experiments.
Fern pattern in a liquid crystal polymer composed of palladium lipoic acid.
Cross Pattern. The destruction of palladium lipoic acid fern pattern by tobacco smoke.
Reviews: The Lancet; Science (April 2000)
N01se Catalogue info (Kettle's Yard)
Bill Jones + Ben Neill's PULSE 48 installed at Kettle's Yard,  Cambridge (UK)

Joy Garnett: Monkey Kidney Carcinoma (Untreated, Treated II), oil on canvas, 1998. At the Wellcome Trust's Two10 Gallery, London (UK)
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